Dec 29, 2000.
A review of the seven Congressional apportionments since 1940 produces a few factoids.
These fun facts and state growth profiles may be found in our special topical summary,
- Most states affected: 24 for the 1960 census.
- Most states gaining: 11 for the 1980 census.
- Most states losing: 16 for the 1960 census.
- Most seats shifted: 19 for the 1990 census.
- Largest single gain for a state: CA for the 1960 census.
- Largest single loss for a state: NY for the 1980 census.
- Number of times CA was the largest gainer: 5 of the last 7.
- Number of times either NY and/or PA were the largest losers: 7 of the last 7.
- Number of states that had ever gained (1940-1990) 2 seats or more: 3-CA, FL, TX.
- Number of states that have ever gained (1940-2000) 2 seats or more: 5-CA, FL, TX and now AZ and GA.
- Number of states that have ever lost (1940-2000) 3 seats or more: 2-NY and PA.
- Number of states that have ever lost (1940-2000) 2 seats or more: 9-AR, IL, MA, MI, MO, NY, OH, OK and PA.
- Number of states that have gained at least 1 seat every apportionment (1940-2000): 2-CA and FL.
- Number of states that have lost at least 1 seat every apportionment (1940-2000): 1-PA.
- Number of states that have stayed the same number of seats (1940-2000): 9; 4 At-Large: AK, DE, VT and WY; 4 at 2 seats: HI, ID, NH, RI; & SC at 6.
- Number of single-member At-Large states following the 1930 census: 6-AZ, DE, NV, NM, VT and WY.
- Number of single-member At-Large states following the 2000 census: 7-AK, DE, MT, ND, SD, VT and WY.
- Number of CDs in ten largest states in 1930: 230 (250 EV), in ten smallest states in 1930: 14 (34 EV).
- Number of CDs in ten largest states in 2000: 236 (256 EV), in ten smallest states in 2000: 13 (33 EV).
- Seats by Sections of the nation in 1940: East/Midwest vs. South/West, 251 to 184 (58% to 42%).
- Seats by Sections of the nation in 2000: East/Midwest vs. South/West, 183 to 252 (42% to 58%).
- Largest relative increase in size, (1940-2000): AZ (from 2 to 8) and FL (from 6 to 25).
- Largest relative decrease in size, (1940-2000): MT, ND, SD (from 2 to 1), and WV (from 6 to 3).
- Most Populous Congressional District in 2000: MT at 902,195; smallest: WY at 493,782.
- Average population per Congressional District: 647,000 (281,424,177/435).
- Number of states with State Senate districts more populous than Congressional Districts: CA and TX.
- Most populous Legislative Districts in 2000: CA Senate at 847,000 and TX Senate at 673,000 (persons per member).
- Least populous Legislative Districts in 2000: NH House at 3,100 and VT House at 4,100 (persons per member).
- State with largest number of seats: VA (1789-1800); NY (1810-1960), CA (1970-2000).
- Number of times PA was state with second largest number of seats: 15 (1789 tied with MA, 1810-1940, and 1950 tied with CA).
APPORTIONMENT IN 2000, NATIONAL SUMMARY, 2000 Census Edition.
(forthcoming January 2001, $115. Item APA-US-00Z.)
Dec 29, 2000.
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL TOTALS FOR 2000 CENSUS.
- Total Resident Population (50 states+DC) 281,421,906 (13% higher than 1990)
- Total Overseas Population (50 states+DC) 576,367 (37% lower than 1990)
- Total Apportionment Population (50 states only) 281,424,177 (13% higher than 1990)
- Total Population (50 states+DC+Puerto Rico): 285,230,516
- Northeast: 53,594,378 (+5.5%)
- Midwest: 64,392,776 (+7.9%)
- South: 100,236,820 (+17.3%)
- West: 63,197,932 (+19.7%)
- Puerto Rico: 3,808,610 (+8.1%)
Dec 28, 2000.
APPORTIONMENT OF THE U.S. HOUSE, FOR THE 108TH-112TH CONGRESSES.
The constitutional purpose of the census, the apportionment of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
for the peaceful transfer of political power,
will once again be commenced by today's release by the Bureau of the Census of the apportionment population.
Note that the apportionment population differs from data that will be subsequently released in at least two ways.
Note also that the final results of seats shifts may differ from the projections for several reasons:
- First, the apportionment population includes overseas military population assigned to the several states by the
Department of Defense.
In 1990, the addition of these persons to the so-called resident population were enough to flip a seat from Massachusetts to Washington state.
- Second, the apportionment population is not adjusted for the net differential undercount, as subsequent data may be.
This is the only item on which everyone agrees following the 1999 Supreme Court case.
Until we can prepare a more-in-depth review, for stats on the 2000 apportionment, please review the following:
- Annual estimates & projections are based upon adminstrative records (births, deaths and migration) using the 1990 (unadjusted)
census as a starting point. They are not based upon any interim census.
- Analysis of seats to be apportioned did not include any factor for the overseas military population.
- The apportionment formula, the so-called "method of equal proportions", is susceptible to small shifts in population.
The precision used in the projections, based largely upon growth patterns of the most recent years, may fail in this regard.
- States affected: 18
- Seats shifting: 12
- States losing seats: 10 (CT-1, NY-2, PA-2, OH-1, MI-1, IN-1, IL-1, WI-1, MS-1, OK-1)
- States gaining seats: 8 (NC+1, GA+2, FL+2, TX+2, CO+1, AZ+2, NV+1, CA+1)
- Last seats awarded: 431-IA (+44,339), 432-FL (212,934), 433-OH (+79,689), 434-CA (+33,941), 435-NC (+3,087)
- Next seats NOT awarded: 436-UT (-857), 437-NY-(47,249), 438-TX (-86,273), 439-MI (-50,889), IN-440 (-37,057)
- Closest winner: NC with 3,087 to spare.
- Closest loser: UT with -857 short.
Changes over the projections based upon 1999 population estimates and projections:
- The most important difference is the total population in the nation: 281,421,906 total persons.
This is significantly larger (2.7%) than the 274 million projected as a basis of the annual estimates throughout the decade,
or the 276 million that was on the Bureau's population clock until this morning.
Obviously, this will affect the projections of seats based upon these annual estimates.
- New states added to the shift list: MI and IN at -1, NC at +1.
- Other changes from predictions: FL +2
- Apportionment maps summarizing the changes can be found on our site.
- Information from the Census Bureau can be found here.
- More in depth review material from the decade's annual estimates can be found at out census portal.
- See also, a note below for Dec. 8, 2000 on the 2000 Presidential election and apportionment.
- The update on this note with the new numbers is Bush 278-Gore 260, with additional seats added to the shift
(Bush picks up 1 for FL, 1 for NC, loses 1 for IN; Gore loses 1 for MI).
- Eleven states in electoral votes for 2004-2008 now produce 271 votes, 2 more than needed.
- CA-55, TX-34, NY-31, FL-27, IL-21, OH-21, PA-21, OH-20, MI-17, GA-15, NJ-15, NC-15.
- 2000 Results: 5 for Gore, 6 for Bush.